March 6, 2018 marked the second day of the joint Keystone Symposia in Banff, Canada: (1) "Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota for Metabolic Health" and (2) "Microbiome, Host Resistance and Disease".
Morning sessions were split into two tracks. The first track covered microbiota and metabolic disorders, with two initial talks by François Leulier (Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon) on gut microbiota and host mutualism in chronic undernutrition, and Emily P. Balskus (Harvard University) on microbiota-drug interactions.
The complex development of early life gut microbiota and immune function was the topic covered by the second track. Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello (Rutgers University) gave an overview of what we know about how C-section birth is linked with later-life disease through the gut microbiota, showing the associations that exist in human populations and the causal evidence that exists in mouse models. Andrew J. S. Macpherson (University of Bern) then gave a detailed account of early postnatal innate immune development, showing how the site of microbe administration shapes distinct repertoires of IgA and IgG antibodies from mature B cells, and how these antibodies are found in several sites through the host. Subsequent talks branched out to other immune-related topics linked to skin commensals, and also the gut-brain axis (i.e. a gut bacterial metabolite that causes behavioural abnormalities related to anxiety and autism spectrum disorder).
The evening’s sessions were divided into one track on gut barrier alterations and host metabolic disorders, and one on mechanistic microbiome function in physiology and aging. A highlight of the evening was the account given by Lora Hooper (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center) of mechanisms linking circadian rhythm with adipose tissue development: in mouse models, she found a conventional microbiota drives immune system regulation of circadian rhythms, resulting in more long-chain fatty acid uptake on a high-fat diet, and ultimately an increase in adipose tissue. Participants in the evening session also heard a talk by Michiel Kleerebezem focusing on the microbiota of the small intestine and how a robotic capsule can be used to track the effects of a dietary intervention.
We’ll be tweeting again on Wednesday! Look for the conference hashtags, #KSmicrobiome and #KSgut.